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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-36

Microbiological and clinical characteristics of sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery in a teaching hospital in Kuwait: A 5-year retrospective study

1 Department of Microbiology, Al-Amiri Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait
2 Department of Cardiac Surgery, SACC, Al-Amiri Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait
3 Department of Microbiology, Al-Amiri Hospital; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deepthi Nair
MD, DipRCPath (UK), Specialist, Department of Microbiology, Al-Amiri Hospital, Kuwait, P.O.Box 4077, Code:13041 Safat, State of Kuwait
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ACCJ.ACCJ_3_19

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Background: Sternal wound infections (SWI) following cardiac surgery are health-care-associated infections which have to be prevented as the morbidity and mortality attributed to SWI are high. Objective: The aim is to study incidence, microbial etiology, risk factors, and outcome of SWI that followed cardiac surgery in our hospital. Methods: A retrospective, single-center study involving 833 patients who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2012 to December 2016 was conducted in Al-Amiri hospital in collaboration with the Cardiac Coronary Care Unit, Sabah Al Ahmed Cardiac Centre, Kuwait. Microbiological data were retrieved from laboratory computers, and clinical details from patient files. Age, sex, microbial etiology, risk factors, and outcome were analyzed. A statistical study was done using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The incidence of SWI was 2.1%. Predominant microorganisms isolated were Staphylococcus epidermidis (27.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.7%). The most common risk factor was diabetes mellitus, 88.9% cases. About 50% cases were obese and 72.2% cases had a hospital stay for more than 10 days, with the median length of stay being 13.50 days. 30-day mortality outcome was zero. Conclusion: SWI lead to bacteremia, sepsis and extended hospital stay placing the patient at risk of further hospital acquired infections, and increased cost. Preoperative blood sugar control and weight reduction are important. Infection control measures such as nasal screen for Staphylococcus aureus and rectal screen for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli have to be considered. Based on the most common organisms isolated, ceftazidime with vancomycin could be a better option for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in our center.

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