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Tricuspid regurgitation etiologies, current diagnostic methods, and management: A 2022 update and review of the literature

1 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
2 Department of Cardiology, Sabah Al Ahmad Cardiac Centre, Al Amiri Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait
3 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Jabryia, Kuwait
4 Department of Internal Medicine with the Subspecialty of Cardiology and Functional Diagnostics Named after V.S. Moiseev, Institute of Medicine, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia
5 Department of Medicine, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, United Kingdom
6 Department of Internal Medicine, St. Luke's Hospital, St. Louis, MO, USA
7 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom; Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ionic-Molecular Function of Cardiovascular Disease, Tianjin Institute of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China: Department of Medicine, Kent and Medway Medical School, Canterbury, United Kingdom
8 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; Heart Failure and Structural Heart Disease Unit, Cardiovascular Analytics Group, China-UK Collaboration, Hong Kong, China

Correspondence Address:
Helen Huang,
Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2

Rajesh Rajan,
Department of Cardiology, Sabah Al Ahmed Cardiac Centre, Kuwait City - 13001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common finding. Any changes to the components of the tricuspid valve (TV), such as the tricuspid annulus, valve leaflets, papillary muscles, and chordae tendinae can lead to TR. This valvular disease has recently sparked interest after it was long forgotten. This paper examines the anatomy of the TV, etiology of TR, and critically appraises the diagnostic methods used to assess the TV and the current medical treatment options for TR. This paper aims to give a detailed review of TR in hopes that more research will be conducted to help better assess patients with tricuspid regurgitation.

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