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Figure 2: Paradoxical low-flow low-gradient aortic stenosis. An 86-year-old male with mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (RWT: 0.54, LV mass index: 126gm/m2) with normal LV systolic function (LVEF 55-60%) diagnosed as low-flow low gradient with preserved EF. (a) LVOT diameter measured from parasternal long axis. (b) AVA was calculated using the continuity equation. (c) LVEF was preserved and SVI <35 indicates low flow. (d) MPG and Vmax within the moderate range. AVA: Aortic valve area, AVAI: Aortic valve area index, Diam: Diameter, LVOT: left ventricular outflow tract, LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction, MPG: Mean transaortic pressure gradient, SVI: Stroke volume index, Vmax: Peak aortic velocity

Figure 2: Paradoxical low-flow low-gradient aortic stenosis. An 86-year-old male with mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (RWT: 0.54, LV mass index: 126gm/m<sup>2</sup>) with normal LV systolic function (LVEF 55-60%) diagnosed as low-flow low gradient with preserved EF. (a) LVOT diameter measured from parasternal long axis. (b) AVA was calculated using the continuity equation. (c) LVEF was preserved and SVI <35 indicates low flow. (d) MPG and Vmax within the moderate range. AVA: Aortic valve area, AVAI: Aortic valve area index, Diam: Diameter, LVOT: left ventricular outflow tract, LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction, MPG: Mean transaortic pressure gradient, SVI: Stroke volume index, Vmax: Peak aortic velocity