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Figure 3: Dobutamine stress echocardiography: Pseudosevere AS. A 65-year-old female with ischemic heart disease and mild systolic dysfunction (LVEF: 40%–50%), CR >20%. During rest (a): severe AVA (<1 cm2), moderate Vmax & MPG → suspected severe LFLG AS. During stress (b): moderate AVA (>1cm), minor increase in MPG (<40)→ pseudosevere AS (moderate AS). AVA: Aortic valve area, CR: Contractile reserve, MPG: Mean transaortic pressure gradient, LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction, Vmax: Peak aortic velocity

Figure 3: Dobutamine stress echocardiography: Pseudosevere AS. A 65-year-old female with ischemic heart disease and mild systolic dysfunction (LVEF: 40%–50%), CR >20%. During rest (a): severe AVA (<1 cm<sup>2</sup>), moderate Vmax & MPG → suspected severe LFLG AS. During stress (b): moderate AVA (>1cm), minor increase in MPG (<40)→ pseudosevere AS (moderate AS). AVA: Aortic valve area, CR: Contractile reserve, MPG: Mean transaortic pressure gradient, LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction, Vmax: Peak aortic velocity